I know that PHP is compiled to byte code before it is run on the server, and then that byte code can be cached so that the whole script doesn't have to be re-interpreted with every web access.
But can you "compile" PHP code and upload a binary-ish file, which will just be run by the byte code interpreter?
After this question was asked, Facebook launched HipHop for PHP which is probably the best-tested PHP compiler to date (seeing as it ran one of the world’s 10 biggest websites). However, Facebook discontinued it in favour of HHVM, which is a virtual machine, not a compiler.
Beyond that, googling
PHP compiler turns up a number of 3rd party solutions.
The short answer is "no".
The current implementation of PHP is that of an interpreted language. You can argue the theoretical aspects of the fact that any language can technically be interpreted or compiled, but as it stands, the current implementations are such that PHP code requires an interpreter to run, and the interpreter manages the executing environment.
To answer your question about uploading pre-compiled PHP bytecode, it's probably possible, but you'd have to implement a way for the PHP interpreter to read in such a file and work with it. With existing opcode caches out there already, it doesn't seem like a task that would reap much reward.